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Multivalent interactions play show enhanced strength and better selectivity compared to monovalent interactions, but they are much less understood due to their complexity.

Using AFM-based single molecule force spectroscopy. we detect molecular interactions in the range of a few piconewtons to several nanonewtons and correlate them with the formation and subsequent breaking of one or several bonds and assign these bonds. We use a multifunctional polymer that is covalently attached to an AFM cantilever tip to contact a polymer layer of the multifunctional polymer bound to a solid substrate. Varying the crosslinking state of the polymer layer, we find that bonds of intermediate strength (non-covalent), like coordination bonds, give the highest multivalent bond strength, even outperforming strong (covalent) bonds.

Multivalent interactions can be used to design stable and durable polymer coatings, in particular keeping the number of non-covalent interactions at a high level.



N. Schwierz, D. Horinek, S. Liese, T. Pirzer, B.N. Balzer, T. Hugel & R.R. Netz*
On the relationship between peptide adsorption resistance and surface contact angle: A combined experimental and simulation single-molecule study
J. Am. Chem. Soc., 134 (48), 19628 (2012).


B.N. Balzer, M. Gallei, K. Sondergeld, M. Schindler, P. Müller-Buschbaum, M. Rehahn & T. Hugel*
Cohesion mechanisms of polystyrene-based thin polymer films
Macromolecules, 46 (18), 7406 (2013).
B.N. Balzer, S. Micciulla, S. Dodoo, M. Zerball, M. Gallei, M Rehahn, R. v. Klitzing & T. Hugel*
Adhesion property profiles of supported thin polymer films
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5 (13), 6300 (2013).

M. Lallemang, L. Yu, W. Cai, K. Rischka, A. Hartwig, R. Haag, T. Hugel* & B. N. Balzer*

Multivalent non-covalent interactions lead to strongest polymer adhesion

Nanoscale, 14, 3768 (2022).

M. Ibrahim, C. Wenzel, M. Lallemang, B. N. Balzer* & N. Schwierz*

Adsorbing DNA to mica by cations: Influence of the valency and ion type

bioRxiv (2023).

M. Ibrahim, C. Wenzel, M. Lallemang, B. N. Balzer* & N. Schwierz*

Adsorbing DNA to mica by cations: influence of valency and ion type

Langmuir,  39 (44), 15553 (2023).

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